Here we are going to consider approaches for expanding the basic summary – conclusion.

Here we are going to consider approaches for expanding the basic summary – conclusion.

But two words of advice have been in order. First, no matter what clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by virtue of their placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight. It is the statement that is last reader will encounter before turning from your work. Realizing this, writers who expand from the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened amount of diction. Soaring drama and rhetoric in a conclusion are fine provided that they do not unbalance the paper and call attention to themselves. Having labored hours that are long your paper, you have got every right to wax eloquent. But keep a feeling of timing and proportion. Create your points quickly and end crisply.

Statement associated with the Subject’s Significance

One of the more effective techniques to conclude a paper is always to talk about the larger need for everything you have written, providing readers with one more reason to regard your work as a effort that is serious. When utilizing this strategy, you move from the concern that is specific of paper into the broader concerns of the reader’s world. Often, you will want to choose among a range of significances: A paper from the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of their impact on sexual mores, population, or perhaps the church. But don’t overwhelm the importance to your reader of your remarks. Keep your discussion well focused.

The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H. Shull, a pioneer within the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn:

. . . Thus, the hybrids developed and described by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.S. corn production.

The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic within the Corn Belt. From 1930 through 1979 the average yields of corn within the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per acre, additionally the extra value to the farmer is currently several billion dollars each year.

The prosperity of hybrid corn has additionally stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid areas of the world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930. Approximately 20 percent of this land specialized in rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, that is reported to yield 20 percent significantly more than the best varieties. And several superior kinds of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, as well as other vegetables are hybrids. Today practically all corn stated in the countries that are developed from hybrid seed. From those blue bloods associated with plant kingdom has arrived a model for feeding the world. 10

The sentence that is first of conclusion is a synopsis, and from this your reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull’s processes for the hybrid breeding of corn. The summary is followed closely by a discussion that is two-paragraph the significance of Shull’s research for feeding the planet.

Call for Further Research

Into the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of what happens to be presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) additionally the ways that the niche into consideration needs to be further explored. That you call on others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn’t already been conducted if you raise questions.

This next conclusion comes from a sociological report in the keeping of elderly men and women in assisted living facilities.

Thus, our study shows a correlation between the keeping of elderly citizens in nursing facilities while the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills on the ten months following placement. What the investigation has not made clear is the extent to which this decline that is marked because of physical in place of emotional causes. The elderly are referred to homes at that time inside their lives once they grow less able to care for themselves – which implies that the drop-off in skills can be as a result of physical causes. However the stress that is emotional of put into a home, away from family plus in an environment that confirms the patient’s view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate – or even itself be a primary cause of – the individual’s rapid loss of abilities. Further research is needed to clarify the partnership between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of this elderly in nursing facilities. There is doubt that is little information yielded by such studies can enable medical care professionals to deliver more beneficial services.

Notice how this call for further study locates the author in a community that is large of on whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions which have come out of her very own work. The author summarizes her findings (when you look at the first sentence of this paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation.

The purpose of your paper might be to review a problem or controversy also to discuss contributing factors. This kind of a case, it could be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to supply a solution in line with the knowledge you have gained while conducting research. In case the solution is to be studied seriously, your knowledge should be amply demonstrated within the body associated with the paper.

. . . The significant problem in college sports today is not commercialism – this is the exploitation of athletes in addition to proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.

Many universities are currently deriving benefits that are substantial sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn through the poorest sections of America’s population. This is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to note that these young people get a fair return for their labor in both terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports.

Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should always be built to extend until graduation, in the place of covering only four many years of athletic eligibility, and really should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper health care bills. At institutions where the profits are particularly large (such as for example Texas A &M, which could afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships also needs to provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition. The main thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to get skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. This may well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers.

Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be an easy task to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to employ their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis associated with universities from the backs of America’s poor and minorities is not, in the end, a solution that is tenable. The college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his – and hers – a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work with the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor. 11

The author summarizes his article in one single sentence: «the main problem in college sports today is not commercialism – it’s the exploitation of athletes while the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. in this conclusion» In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis regarding the problem just stated and follows with a general recommendation – that «educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens» be responsible for the welfare of college athletes. In paragraph 3, he makes a proposal that is specific and in the ultimate paragraph, he anticipates resistance into the proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to the typical point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal.

An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the true point of which in a conclusion is always to shed light on your own subject. The anecdote is more direct than an allusion. With an allusion, you simply refer to a story («a lot of people today reside in Plato’s cave . . .»); with the anecdote, you truly retell the story. The anecdote allows readers to realize for themselves the value of a reference to a different source – an attempt most readers enjoy since they get to exercise their creativity.